What is Karst Topography. Top 10 Karst sites and cave system.
Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. It has also been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions.
01. Memoth Cave System Kentucky:
Mammoth Cave National Park is in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It’s home to the Mammoth Cave, a long cave system of chambers and subterranean passageways. Sites include the Frozen Niagara section, known for waterfall-like flowstone formations, and Gothic Avenue, its ceiling covered in 19th-century visitors’ signatures. Trails take in other park features like the Green and Nolin rivers and the sinkholes of Cedar Sink. Mamoth Cave is the world’s largest system, which extends up to a range of 400 miles.
02. Song Dong Cave Vietnam:
It is second largest cave system of the world. It is 80 m wide and 4.5 km long. The vast Nullarbor Plain is the world’s largest limestone karst landscape covering an area of 270,000 square km, extending 2000 km between Norseman and Ceduna. Just recently beat Deer Cave in Malaysia for the title of World’s Largest Cave.
03. Waitomo Glow Worm Cave, New Zealand:
04. Postojna Cave, Solvenia:
Postojna Cave is a 24,340 m long karst cave system near Postojna, southwestern Slovenia. It is the second-longest cave system in the country as well as one of its top tourism sites. The caves were created by the Pivka River. It is most visited cave in the world. In last 185 years over 31 million visitors visited this cave system.
05. Xiaozhai Tiankeng, China (Large Sink Hole):
This is sink hole which is 625 m long, 535 m wide, 662 m deep. The largest sinkhole of the world is Xiaozhai Tiankeng – incredible, up to 662 m deep pit with nearly vertical walls. This is one of the most impressive natural attractions on Earth. Since recent times scientists have proposed a special name for especially large sinkholes – tiankeng. This could be translated from Chinese approximately as “heavenly pit” or “sky hole”. Tiankeng is giant sinkhole with vertical walls, at least 100 m deep and 100 m wide. Most often bottom of tiankeng is crossed by underground river, which is open to daylight only here.
06. Great Blue Hole, Belize (Largest underwater Sinkhole):
It is located in Belize city, Belize. The Great Blue Hole is a giant submarine sinkhole off the coast of Belize. It lies near the center of Lighthouse Reef, a small atoll 70 km from the mainland and Belize City. The hole is circular in shape, over 300 m across and 125m deep.
07. Sarisarinama, Venezuela:
Cerro Sarisariñama is a tepui, a flat-topped mountain in Jaua-Sarisariñama National Park at the far south-west of Bolívar State, Venezuela, near the border with Brazil. Its altitude range is 300–2,350 metres. It is 350 m wide and 350 m deep. It is a mysterious sink hole.
08. Nullarbor Plain, Australia:
This is not less than a spirit land. The vast Nullarbor Plain straddles the border of Western Australia and South Australia and is the world’s largest limestone karst landscape. The conservation of this area is vital to the Wild Country vision across the two states. 270 000 km2 the same as the entire country of New Zealand!
09. The Son River, Phong Nha – Ke Bang, Vietnam and Laos:
Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park is a protected area in north-central Vietnam bordering the Hin Namno Reserve in Laos. Characterized by mountains, tropical forests and underground rivers, it’s known for its ancient limestone karsts and vast network of caves. These include the huge Sơn Đoòng cave and Phong Nha cave, which is big enough for boats. The area’s rich wildlife includes tigers, black bears and elephants. Out there the Son River, Phong Nha river flows Runsunderground for 20 km. The whole park is in karst topographic landscape.
10. Cave Guizhou, China:
Dongzhong Primary School, located inside this cave. Zhijin Cave is a karst cave located in Minzhai Village, Zhijin County, Guizhou Province, People’s Republic of China. An important tourism area, the site lies 23 km northeast of the county town and 166 km from the provincial capital, Guiyang.