Sea foods includes all those animals and plants found in sea water used as food by human being. For example fish and shellfish and seaweeds and microalgae. Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms while edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the world, especially in Asia. Man has been using aquatic animals and plants as food since the his birth. Man had been harvesting wild sea food as a primary source of food. The harvesting of wild seafood is usually known as fishing or hunting, and the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, or fish farming in the case of fish. Seafood is often distinguished from meat, although it is still animal and is excluded in a strict vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many dietsaround the world, especially in coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals. Some seafoods (kelp) are used as food for other plants (fertilizer). In these ways, seafoods are indirectly used to produce further food for human consumption. Products, such as fish oil and spirulina tablets are also extracted from seafoods. Some seafood is feed to aquarium fish, or used to feed domestic pets, such as cats, and a small proportion is used in medicine, or is used industrially for non-food purposes (leather).
Most common sea foods:
There are basically seven types of sea foods. Among these foods some are from animal kingdom while some belongs to plants.
Most common fish which are used as food are Anchovy, Basa, Bass (see also striped bass), Black cod/Sablefish, Blowfish, Bluefish, Bombay duck, Bream, Brill, Butter fish, Catfish, Cod (see also Pacific cod and Atlantic cod), Dogfish, Dorade, Eel, Flounder, Grouper, Haddock, Hake, Halibut, Herring, Ilish, John Dory, Kingfish, Lamprey, Lingcod, Mackerel, Mahi Mahi, Monkfish, Mullet, Orange roughy, Parrotfish, Patagonian toothfish (also called Chilean sea bass), Pike, Pilchard, Pollock, Pomfret, Pompano, Sablefish, Salmon, Sanddab, Pacific sanddab, Sardine, Sea bass, Shad (see also alewife and American shad), Shark, Skate, Smelt, Snakehead, Snapper (see also rockfish, rock cod and Pacific snapper), Sole, Sprat, Suiter-fish, Sturgeon, Surimi, Swordfish, Tilapia, Tilefish, Trout (see also rainbow trout), Tuna (see also albacore tuna, yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna and bluefin tuna), Turbot, Wahoo, Whitefish and Whiting etc.
Some of the the above mentioned fish are referred to as whitefish in the market, but are not whitefishes in a taxonomic sense.
Roe or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish and certain marine animals, such as shrimp, scallop and sea urchins. Roes are used as food and liked all over the world. Some examples of roe are Caviar (sturgeon roe), Ikura (salmon roe), Kazunoko (herring roe), Lumpfish roe, Masago (capelin roe), Shad roe, Tobiko (flying-fish roe) etc.
Shellfish is a culinary and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Most common shell fish which are used as food and are subdivided into two types.
- Crab (see also Dungeness crab, mud crab, sand crab, king crab and snow crab)
- Lobster (see also American lobster, rock lobster, spiny lobster, and red lobster)
- Shrimp (see also prawns)
- Scallop (see also bay scallop and sea scallop)
- Escargot (Snails)
These are common in some Asian cuisines. Most common echinoderms are
- Sea cucumber
- Uni (sea urchin “roe”)
It is the scientific name of Jellyfish. Jellyfish or jellies are softbodied, free-swimming aquatic animals with a gelatinous umbrella-shaped bell and trailing tentacles. The bell can pulsate to acquire propulsion and locomotion.
Its scientific name is Urochordata. A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords. These are also used as food in almost all over the world.
07. Aquatic Plants:
For several centuries there has been a traditional use of seaweeds as food in China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. As people from these countries have migrated around the world, this custom has moved with them, so that today there are many more countries where the consumption of seaweed is not unusual. Coastal dwellers in tropical climates such as Indonesia and Malaysia have also eaten fresh seaweeds, especially as salad components.