Internal combustion engine is a type of engine which burns fuel for getting energy. There are many types of internal combustion engine but here i am discussing most common ICEs. The mechanism of each engine is quite different but all of the engines work on a common phenomenon. Each of these engines burns fuel for energizing it.
01. Diesel Engine:
Diesel Engine was discovered by Rudolf Diesel in 1858. This engine is a four stroke type engine, in which there is a piston which on first stroke sucks the injected fuel mixed air via the inlet valve. In the second stroke the piston again pushes the air and compress the air with in the cylinder. In this stage the air is compressed by 1/6th volume. The compressed air gets hot up to 600 degree Celsius. In this stroke the air ignites itself and combusts. This combusted air pushes the piston downward while starting the third stroke. The third stroke is also called power stroke. When the piston reaches in extreme end of the cylinder, the revolving crank again pushes the piston upward in the cylinder. This is the stage of 4th stroke. The fourth stroke is also called exhaust stroke. In this stroke the outlet valve opens and the burnt air is thrown out. These four strokes completes one revolution of the crank.
02. Four Stroke Petrol Engine:
A four stroke petrol engine was invented by Nikolaus Otto in 1882. The mechanism of a four stroke petrol engine is quit similar to that of Diesel Engine. The difference is,
A petrol engine uses petrol while a diesel engine used diesel.
In diesel engine the fuel is ignited by the compression of fueled air. While in a 4 stroke petrol engine the fuel is ignited by the spark plug.
In four stroke petrol engine the fuel in sucked by the movement of piston. While in a diesel engine the fuel is injected by a fuel pump.
03. Two Stroke Petrol Engine:
This type of engine was discovered by Dugald Clerk in 1920. This engine is quit simple and easy to build. This type of engine uses petrol and fuel ignited by spark plug. But its mechanism is quit different from the above mentioned two types of engine. This type of engine completes its revolution with two strokes of piston; means the one up and down movement of piston completes one revolution of crank wheel. The mechanism of this type of engine is as under: The first stroke starts with the downward motion of piston. When the piston moves downward it pushes the fueled air present in the crank chamber upward through a passage which leads to the head of engine. When the fueled air is filled the cylinder of engine. The piston moves upward again, compresses the air slightly. In this stage the fueled air is ignited by the spark plug. Here one revolution completes. Again the first stroke starts and the burnt air is expelled out when the piston covers its half of the distance, through a hole in the middle of cylinder. A two stroke engine is comparatively simpler than than a four stroke engine.
04. Wankel/ Rotary Engine:
A rotary engine is an internal combustion engine, like the engine in your car, but it works in a completely different way than the conventional piston engine. In a rotary engine there is no piston , no crank, no fuel pump.
In a piston engine, the same volume of space (the cylinder) alternately does four different jobs — intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. A rotary engine does these same four jobs, but each one happens in its own part of the housing. It’s kind of like having a dedicated cylinder for each of the four jobs, with the piston moving continually from one to the next.
05. Steam Engine:
Steam engine is an oldest type engine and these are not internal combustion engines. A steam engine is an external combustion engine which run over steam of boiled water. The water is boiled in a Steam boiler heated by any type of fuel. It is run over burning woods, oil, gas, cow dung, etc. It works when The steam generated in the boiler flows down into a cylinder just ahead of the wheels, pushing a tight-fitting plunger, the piston, back and forth. A little mechanical gate in the cylinder, known as an inlet valve (shown in orange) lets the steam in. The piston is connected to one or more of the locomotive’s wheels through a kind of arm-elbow-shoulder joint called a crank and connecting rod.
06. Stirling Engine:
Stirling Engine is a very useful engine, but is not a heavy duty engine. It is less powerful than other engines like steam engine, diesel and petrol engines. Its mechanism is quit simple. Stirling engines can not be hard to understand. Here are the key points. Every Stirling engine has a sealed cylinder with one part hot and the other cold. The working gas inside the engine (which is often air, helium, or hydrogen) is moved by a mechanism from the hot side to the cold side. When the gas is on the hot side it expands and pushes up on a piston. When it moves back to the cold side it contracts. Properly designed Stirling engines have two power pulses per revolution, which can make them very smooth running. Two of the more common types are two piston Stirling engines and displacer-type Stirling engines. The two piston type Stirling engine has two power pistons. The displacer type Stirling engine has one power piston and a displacer piston.
07. Jet Engine:
Jet engine is mostly used in airplanes. It is also called gas turbines. Jet engines move the airplane forward with a great force that is produced by a tremendous thrust and causes the plane to fly very fast. All jet engines, which are also called gas turbines, work on the same principle. The engine sucks air in at the front with a fan. A compressor raises the pressure of the air.
09. CO2 Engine:
CO2 is not a combustion engine. CO 2 is an elastic gas. A gas cylinder is generally attached to this type of engine, and the valve of gas cylinder is opened. The gas enters the head of the engine, where there is a ball-lid in the head which keep the entrance of head closed. When engine starts moving, the upward motion of the piston pushes the ball upward, while opening the entrance of the head and allowing the gas fill into the cylinder of engine. The gas pushes the piston downward. The downward motion of piston allow the ball again sit on the opening of the head of Engine, which stops the gas to enter anymore. At the end of stroke, there is a hole in the cylinder of engine, it allows the gas expel out of the cylinder of engine. Due to the rotational movement of crank the piston again thrusts upward and pushes the ball up and allows the gas enter into the cylinder of engine, which pushed the piston again downward. Thus keeps the rotational motion continued.
10. Huttlin Kugelmotor:
The spherical engine Hüttlin-Kugelmotor with its three-dimensional kinematic is, without the integrated electrical generator, the basis for a new and especially progressive and environmentally-friendly pure four stroke engine. The Hüttlin-Kugelmotor is, depending on the design variant, suitable for all commonly available fuels, such as petrol, diesel, autogas (LPG/CNG), bio-fuels and hydrogen. The Hüttlin-Kugelmotor is constructed around a so-called piston-rotor, fitted with two curved cavities with a circular cross-section arranged on the same axial plane, with a total of four also curved pistons with a circular cross-sections, which execute reciprocate oscillating movements in diametrically opposite pairs. These piston movements, also called respiratory movements, are induced by the spherical piston guide rollers, rolling on the two surfaces arranged orthogonally to the system axis and sliding simultaneously, (with virtually no mechanical resistance) inside the semi-spherical rear hollow of the twin pistons. This will cause the piston rotor to rotate with the two twin pistons pairs and develop torque. For the purpose of mechanical force transmission the piston rotor in the basic version of the spherical engine is fitted with a bevel gear on each of the two face sides interacting with a second cone gearwheel, arranged orthogonally to the main axis. On each of the two face sides of the casing there is a gas change unit similar in design to a turning slider for the fresh gas intake and the gas exhaust, as well as the injection jets for fuel and the spark or glow plugs. These devices correspond optimally with the combustion chambers arranged on the same axis plane, whose intake and exhaust times can be controlled. The curved but perfectly circular pistons are fitted with mass production pistons rings and meet the proven standards in combustion engine technology. They are a primary component of this three dimensional engine kinematics, consistently oriented on the spherical design principle.