Top 10 venomous mammals

Not only the insects are venomous, but there are so many mammals which either have venomous tooth or nail. Their bite can create serious pain and risk to the life of victim. Some of the mammal have venom in their saliva. Some of them spit like Taipan Snakes. Their spitting can also harm the skin and give painful sensation. So keep away these mammals whenever you have a chance to come across. The most toxic and venomous among them are  being discussed here with detail.

Platypus:

The platypus, sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
Scientific name: Ornithorhynchus anatinus

Conservation status: Least Concern Encyclopedia of Life
Lifespan: 17 years (In captivity)
Gestation period: 10 – 14 days
Mass: Male: 1 – 2.4 kg, Female: 0.7 – 1.6 kg
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It is known to be most venomous mammal animal on the planet. Its bite is very painful and fatal in some cases. Platypuses are one of just a few venomous mammals—one of their more reptilian characteristics. But unlike snakes, a platypus’s venom isn’t in his teeth. Instead, males have a hollow spur on each hind leg from which venom is dispensed—but only sometimes. Although the spur itself sticks around, the venom gland to which it is connected is seasonally-activated and only produces venom during the mating season, indicating that its use is for fending off competing males.

Hispaniolan Solenodon:

The Hispaniolan solenodon, also known as the Haitian solenodon, or agouta, is a solenodon found only on Hispaniola, the island shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. It was first described by Brandt in 1833.
Scientific name: Solenodon paradoxus
Higher classification: Solenodon
Rank: Species

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It is second know  venomous mammal on the planet. This ancient and distinctive mammal, capable of secreting toxic saliva, faces very real and immediate threats to its survival.  One of only two solenodons in existence, the Hispaniolan solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus) resembles a large, stocky shrew, and has a distinctive, elongated snout that extends well beyond the jaw.  A unique ball-and-socket joint attaches the snout to the skull allowing remarkable flexibility and mobility.  The Hispaniolan solenodon has coarse, grizzled grey-brown fur which varies in pattern from one individual to another.  The stiff, muscular tail is grey except for the base and tip which are whitish.  It has long, stout sharp claws, particularly well-developed forelimbs, and it walks with a stiff, waddling gait

Northern Short Tale Shrew:

The northern short-tailed shrew is the largest shrew in the genus Blarina, and occurs in the northeastern region of North America. It is a semifossorial, highly active, and voracious insectivore and is present in a variety of habitats.
Scientific name: Blarina brevicauda
Length: 11 – 14 cm (Adult)
Mass: 15 – 30 g (Adult)
Gestation period: 21 – 22 days
Higher classification: American short-tailed shrew

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The Northern Short-tailed Shrew’s name, brevicauda, means literally “brief (brevi) tail (cauda).” These deceptively ordinary little creatures hold a claim as one of the very few venomous mammals, use echolocation to augment their weak eyesight, and can capture prey as large as small birds.

Northern Short-tailed Shrews are small rodents with velvety fur that is typically slate gray, dark, or brownish on their dorsal side, and only slightly paler on their ventral. Their bodies are 7.5-10.5 cm long, with tails up to 3 cm. They normally weigh between 15 and 30 grams, although males are slightly larger than females, especially in the skull. The short-tailed shrew is a stout shrew, with a shorter and heavier snout than some of its relatives. Its eyes are small, and its ears are almost hidden in the fur.

Cuban Solenodon:

The Cuban solenodon or almiqui, is a species of soricomorph endemic to Cuba. It belongs to the family Solenodontidae along with a similar species, the Hispaniolan solenodon. The solenodon is unusual among mammals in that its saliva is venomous.
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 Phylum: Chordata
Scientific name: Solenodon cubanus
Higher classification: Solenodon

A primitive, venomous mammal endemic to Cuba and once listed as extinct has been rediscovered after a decadelong quest. The shrewlike Cuban solenodon (Solenodon cubanus)—a “living fossil” that has not changed much in millions of years—was all but wiped out in the 19th century by deforestation and introduced species. The 30-centimeter-long, nocturnal solenodons possess a unique, venomous saliva that they inject through their teeth into their prey. They lack the ability, however, to protect themselves from predators such as cats, dogs and black rats. The animals have a slow, ungainly gait, and when chased tend to stop and hide their heads, making them easy pickings even for animals not much bigger than them. By the 1970s many believed the species had gone extinct, but that changed when a few of the animals showed up in 1974 and 1975.

Eurasian Water Shrew:

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The Eurasian water shrew, known in the United Kingdom as the water shrew, is a relatively large shrew, up to 10 cm long, with a tail up to three-quarters as long again.
Scientific name: Neomys fodiens
Mass: 15 – 19 g (Adult)
Lifespan: 3 years
Gestation period: 24 days
Higher classification: Neomys
The Eurasian Water Shrew (Neomys fodiens), known in Britain as the Water Shrew, has venomous saliva, although it is not able to puncture the skin of large mammals such as humans. Highly territorial, the Eurasian Water Shrew lives a solitary life and is found throughout northern Eurasia from Great Britain to North Korea.

European Mole:

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The European mole is a mammal of the order Eulipotyphla. It is also known as the common mole and the northern mole. This mole lives in an underground tunnel system, which it constantly extends. It uses these tunnels to hunt its prey.
Scientific name: Talpa europaea
Rank: Species
Conservation status: Least Concern 
Higher classification: Talpa
Mass: 88 g (Adult)
The European, or common, mole looks practically harmless. In fact, it looks as if it doesn’t even have eyes — though it actually has very small ones buried under thick fur. This underground dweller, however, has a secret weapon. Using its teeth, the European mole injects venom into its favorite prey — earthworms — paralyzing them in order to eat them more easily or store them for later meals. European moles have to eat a lot in order to survive, after all — about half of their body weight each day — and while they also eat mealworms, maggots, mice and shrews, earthworms are without a doubt their favorite.

Southern Short Taled Shrew:

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The southern short-tailed shrew is a gray, short-tailed shrew that inhabits the eastern United States. An interesting feature of the Southern Short-tailed Shrew is the venom produced by the sub maxillary glands, which is present in the saliva and may be introduced into wounds made by the teeth. Injections of 6 milligrams of an extract prepared from the sub maxillary gland are strong enough to kill mice but there is little likelihood of the venom having any serious effect on man.

Mediterranean Water Shrew:

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The Mediterranean, Southern or Miller’s water shrew is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.

This largely nocturnal species  inhabits burrows during the day and emerges to feed on invertebrates at night . They dive under water to obtain prey such as freshwater shrimps and caddis fly larvae, and the occasional frog newt or small fish may be tackled . When diving, the water-resistant fur holds bubbles of air that give the shrew a silvery appearance. They can also hunt on land for worms, beetles and other terrestrial invertebrates. Shrews are well known for their voracious appetites; water shrews must eat about half their own body weight in food every 24-hours to stay alive . Unusually amongst mammals, this species has venomous saliva, which aids in stunning prey. This species frequently grooms itself carefully, especially after diving. Water is removed by shaking and scratching, and also by squeezing through their narrow burrows.

Water shrews are solitary animals, and hold territories. They do not hibernate, but are active throughout the year. Breeding takes place between April and September; during this time 1 or 2, but occasionally 3 litters of 3-15 young are produced in a nest of woven grasses  after a gestation period of 14-21 days. The lifespan is short (between 14 and 19 months); adults die after breeding, and the young breed the following year . Predators include tawny owls, barn owls, foxes, predatory fish and kestrels.

Common Vampire Bat:

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Common vampire bat. The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is a small, leaf-nosed bat native to the Americas. It is one of three extant species of vampire bat, the other two being the hairy-legged and the white-winged vampire bats. While most people would assume the Vampire Bat is one that is very harsh or even evil, it is quite the opposite. They are very caring and social creatures that are interesting to observe. The young will be well cared for by their mothers. Should she fail to return to the roost other mothers will care for the orphans so that they don’t die. They also share food with each other, and that is something no other species of bats have been seen taking part in. These are venomous bats. Their tooth are tubes with a venomous sack. When it bite it excretes venom.

Scientific name: Desmodus rotundus
Phylum: Chordata
Family: Phyllostomidae
Order: Chiroptera
Class: Mammalia

White Winged Vampire Bat:

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The white-winged vampire bat, a species of vampire bat, is the only member of the genus Diaemus. They are found from Mexico to northern Argentina and are present on the islands of Trinidad and Margarita. Head and body length of white-winged vampire bats is about 85 mm, there is no external tail. The forearm length is approximately 50-56 mm. Adults weigh approximately 30-45 grams. The pelage is usually a shiny clay color, light brown, or dark cinnamon brown. The edges of the wings are white, and the membrane between the second and third fingers is largely white. They have a peculiar short thumb with a single pad under the metacarpal. The slightly re-curved lower incisors with their unique system of cusps distinguish this genus from DesmodusDiaemus youngi is the only bat known to have 22 permanent teeth. The other two vampire bat species (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata) lack the second upper molar and only have 20. It has venom in its upper teeth.
Scientific name: Diaemus youngi
Phylum: Chordata
Higher classification: Diaemus
Rank: Species
Order: Bat

 


One Reply to “Top 10 venomous mammals”

  1. furtdsolinopv

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